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Rotary Kilns

Jan 11, 2016· Sponge iron is the metallic form of iron produced from reduction of iron oxide below the fusion temperature of iron ore (1535o C) by utilizing hydrocarbon gases or carbonaceous fuels as coal. The reduced product having high degree of metallization exhibits a „honeycomb structure‟, due to which it is named as sponge iron.

Pollution in the sponge iron industry

Direct reduced iron (DRI), also called sponge iron, is produced from the direct reduction of iron ore (in the form of lumps, pellets, or fines) to iron by a reducing gas or elemental carbon produced from natural gas or coal.Many ores are suitable for direct reduction. Direct reduction refers to solid-state processes which reduce iron oxides to metallic iron at temperatures below the melting ...

Resources Trend and Use of Direct Reduced Iron in ...

Jul 05, 1983· In such processes carried out in a rotary kiln, for instance during a direct reduction of iron ore to produce sponge iron or during the volatilization of non-ferrous metals from metallurgical plant residue with simultaneous reduction of the iron oxides to produce sponge iron in a direct reducing process or waelz process or during roasting or ...

Chapter 73. Iron and Steel

1. Krupp Sponge Iron Process The Krupp. Sponge iron process uses a rotary kiln for the reduction of high grade lump ores or pellets (Fig. 1). The feed is introduced together with reducing and de-sulphurizing agents (lime-stone or raw dolomite) into an inclined rotary kiln, heated counter current to the flow of hot gas and reduced to form sponge ...

(PDF) i) Direct Reduced Iron: Production

An improved process for making cement wherein aragonite, a natural orthorombic crystalline form of calcium carbonate, is employed in a substantially dry, naturally recovered, unprocessed state as the calcium carbonate constituent. The raw kiln feed of the aragonite and argillaceous materials can be introduced into the kiln together and/or separately to produce the desired raw kiln clinker feed ...

Types of poop: Appearance, color, and what is normal

Rotary kilns work by processing material in a rotating drum at high temperatures for a specified retention time to cause a physical change or chemical reaction in the material being processed. The kiln is set at a slight slope to assist in moving material through the drum.

(PDF) i) Direct Reduced Iron: Production

The forces of attraction tend to hold the particles together and control their movements. The following properties of particles decide whether a given substance will exist as a solid, a liquid or a gas: The spaces between the particles: the spaces between the particles are the minimum in solids, a little more in liquids, and the maximum in gases.

System for recycling char in iron oxide reducing kilns ...

A schematic diagram of the rotary kiln of sponge iron process considered for the present work is shown in Fig. 1. The rotary kiln consists of a rotating cylindrical shell lined inside with refractory material. The kiln is around 80 m long with 4 m internal diameter with nine different ports of secondary air. In

Advances in rotary kiln sponge iron plant (eBook, 2009 ...

Jul 29, 2010· In general the gangue content in sponge iron varies from 4% to 8% . Carbon content: The carbon content in sponge iron produced by coal based rotay kiln processes are generally low and is in the range og 0.08% to 0.20%.The carbon content in gas based processes can be controllrd to a level of 1.5% to 2.0% based on requirement for steel making.

"A study on the accretion formation in DRI kilns and ...

DRI, also known as sponge iron, is the product of reducing iron oxide in the form of iron ore and steel plant wastes into metallic iron, below the melting point of iron and typically in the range of 800–1200 °C. Iron oxide is charged into shaft furnace, rotary kiln, or fluidized beds in the form of pellet, iron ore lumps, or fines. The reduction takes place using gaseous reductants (CO + H ...

Rotary Kilns

Preheating of Iron Ore. Preheating of Coal Reduction of Coal (in to Gases). Reduction-Of/tön Ors Conveyor of the Solid tn view of the above the following conditions are very-very critical in the Kiln. a. Slight positive pressure inside the kiln has to be maintained. b. Temperature inside the Kitn at various zone has to be maintained at desired ...

Pollution in the sponge iron industry

Sponge Iron, also known as Direct Reduced Iron is produced from Hematite Iron ore (5 to 18 mm size) by removing the oxygen by direct reduction process using non coking coal as the fuel and reducing agent in Rotary Kiln. Sponge iron is rich in Metallic Iron (Pure Iron) with consistent chemical & physical …

USA

The forces of attraction tend to hold the particles together and control their movements. The following properties of particles decide whether a given substance will exist as a solid, a liquid or a gas: The spaces between the particles: the spaces between the particles are the minimum in solids, a little more in liquids, and the maximum in gases.

SPONGE IRON

Jul 29, 2010· In general the gangue content in sponge iron varies from 4% to 8% . Carbon content: The carbon content in sponge iron produced by coal based rotay kiln processes are generally low and is in the range og 0.08% to 0.20%.The carbon content in gas based processes can be controllrd to a level of 1.5% to 2.0% based on requirement for steel making.

sponge iron process: 2010

A rotary kiln is a pyroprocessing device used to raise materials to a high temperature (calcination) in a continuous process.Materials produced using rotary kilns include: Cement; Lime; Refractories; Metakaolin; Titanium dioxide; Alumina; Vermiculite; Iron ore pellets; They are also used for roasting a wide variety of sulfide ores prior to metal extraction.

Modeling of Rotary Kiln in Cement Industry

Contents: Introduction Rotary Kiln Process of Making Sponge Iron Thermodynamic Considerations: Feasibility of Reaction Aerodynamics inside a Sponge Iron Rotary Kiln Mathematical Modelling in Rotary Kiln Sponge Iron Making Physical Movement of Solids inside a Rotary Kiln: Charge Movement and Coal Throwing/Slinging Requirement, Generation and ...

Modelling and optimization of a rotary kiln direct ...

Sponge iron industry employs rotary kiln for production of iron and this doesn't give slag unlike blast furnace. Instead the impurities stick to the wall of rotary kiln as accretion. By the XRD analysis of the accretion sample its composition can be determined.

Rotary kiln

source of iron for, and promoting the use of, electric-arc-furnace (EAF) processes. This rapid increase in crude steel production has also resulted in significant increases, as shown in Fig. 3, in the prices of iron ore and coking coal, the principal raw materials of iron and steel.3) There are some background factors: e.g., i) the current BF

Lipsa Nayak

present work to take care of dynam ic process conditions inside the rotary sponge iron kiln, rotating at a very low RPM. Adaptation of the reduction model to kiln conditions is done by usi ng ...

States of matter : Solids, liquids, Gases, Plasma and Bose ...

Iron ore reactor is a moving bed reactor to produce sponge iron product from iron ore. Gas and solid phases are passed in counter current. In general, sponge ore reactor is divided by 3 zones, which are referred to as reduction, isobaric, and cooling zones. The simple scheme of iron ore reactor is shown in Figure 1. In the reduction zone, there ...

Rotary Kilns

Sep 01, 2015· In the sponge iron process concentrated and finely divided iron ore is reduced in solid phase into sponge iron at high temperatures in rotary kiln. The process is very energy demanding. In order to identify the largest losses and to find ways to increase the efficiency, an energy survey of the sponge iron plant was carried out for a number of ...

MIDREX Processes

In the case of a generic iron-ore reduction kiln, Table I provides an overview of the parameters (and ranges) that are considered. Table I. Model inputs used in the evaluation of kiln performance Design parameters Values Kiln internal diameter 4.34 m Kiln length 80 m Kiln inclination 1.5° Solids …

System for recycling char in iron oxide reducing kilns ...

Jul 31, 2013· Pollution in the sponge iron industry 1. Pollution in Coal Based DRI Summer Internship Project, 2012 Supervised by Susmita Dasgupta [email protected] 1 2. DRI, or directly reduced iron is a method of producing solid iron from iron oxide 2 3. Iron from iron ore can be • In solid form In solid form, iron ore can be 1.

Sponge Iron

The iron and steel industry is a "heavy industry": in addition to the safety hazards inherent in giant plants, massive equipment and movement of large masses of materials, workers are exposed to the heat of molten metal and slag at temperatures up to 1,800°C, toxic or corrosive substances, respirable air-borne contaminants and noise.